Anaplastic cancer makes up only a small percentage -- estimates range from 1 to 5 % -- of all thyroid cancers in the U.S. each year. The American Cancer Society estimates there will be 23,600 new cases of thyroid cancer in the U.S. Of these, 17,640 will be in women, and 5,960 in men. About 1,460 people (840 women, 620 men) are expected to die of thyroid cancer in 2004. According to the Thyroid Cancer Survivor's Association, thyroid cancer is one of the few cancers that becoming more common in the past several years, with a growth rate of 3% per 100,000 people each year.
Anaplastic thyroid cancer typically is diagnosed due to a large lump in the gland. It grows rapidly, and can quickly infiltrate the trachea/windpipe, making breathing difficult. Anaplastic thyroid cancer is also one of the only types of thyroid cancer that can rapidly metastasize to other areas of the body. Anaplastic thyroid cancer occurs most often in men over the age of 65.
The symptoms of anaplastic cancer include:
- A mass in the neck (thyroid area), often rapidly enlarged
- Hoarseness or a change in the voice
- Coughing up blood
- Difficulty swallowing
When an anaplastic tumor has infiltrated the windpipe, surgery may be needed to insert a tube in the throat to ease breathing -- tracheotomy. In some cases chemotherapy for metastatic disease. Anaplastic tumors themselves are typically not responsive to chemotherapy.
The prognosis for anaplastic cancer is very poor, and less than 5% of patients survive 5 years. An estimated 10% of patients are alive at 3 years Most people do not survive longer than 6 months, and 80% do not survive beyond a year.
Anaplastic cancers typically metastasize into the trachea, lymph nodes, and the lungs and bone. In as many as 25% of patients, there is tracheal infiltration which can compromise breathing at initial diagnosis of the condition. Spread of anaplastic cancer to the lungs has already occurred in as many as 50% of patients at the time they are diagnosed.
In a January 2003 article on anaplastic thyroid cancer in Current Opinions on Oncology, Dr. J. L. Pasieska reported that the overall median survival is limited to months. In most patients, complete surgical resection is not possible, and almost half the patients seek treatment with distant metastases, with as many as 75% developing distant disease during their illness.
Source: Pasieska, JL, "Anaplastic thyroid cancer.," Curr Opin Oncol. 2003 Jan;15(1):78-83.
MORE INFORMATION ON ANAPLASTIC THYROID CANCER
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